Clinical Assessment, Mental Health, and Mental Disorders
10.1 MENTAL HEALTH AND THE ADULT LIFE COURSE
Defining Mental Health and Psychopathology • A Multidimensional Life-Span Approach to Psychopathology • Ethnicity, Aging, and Mental Health
10.2 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT AND THERAPY
Areas of Multidimensional Assessment • Factors Influencing Assessment • Assessment Methods • Developmental Issues in Therapy
10.3 THE BIG THREE: DEPRESSION, DELIRIUM,
Depression • Delirium • Dementia • Current Controversies: Genetic Tests for Dementia: Difficult Choices • How Do We Know? Training Persons with Dementia to Be Group Activity Leaders
10.4 OTHER MENTAL DISORDERS AND CONCERNS
Anxiety Disorders • Psychotic Disorders • Substance Abuse • Discovering Development: What Substance Abuse Treatment Options Are Available in Your Area?
SOCIAL POLICY IMPLICATIONS
Summary • Review Questions • Integrating Concepts in Development • Key Terms • Resources
ALTHOUGH THE INCIDENCE OF MANY DISEASES OFTEN VARIES ACROSS SOCIOECONOMIC CLASS, DEMENTIA
does not. It does not care whether you are rich and famous or not. As evidence, Rosa Parks, Ronald Reagan, and Margaret Thatcher are only three major historical figures to have been diagnosed with dementia. As the person who started the modern civil rights movement by refusing to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955, Rosa Parks (1913-2005) became a major national figure and her action launched the career of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. For the rest of her life she championed the cause of equal rights.
Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) was the oldest man ever elected as president of the United States, winning election to his first term at age 69 and to his second term at age 73. He served as the 40th president from 1981 to 1989. As a well-known actor and two-term governor of California, Reagan had broad experience in the limelight. Enormously popular during his tenure, Reagan presided over the United States at a time of major global change. He is still remembered and respected by millions of people for his actions during his presidency. Shortly after he left office, however, Reagan began to experience serious memory difficulties along with other serious problems. Eventually he was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, and his condition slowly deteriorated as the disease progressed.
Margaret Thatcher (born 1925) was the first woman to serve as Prime Minister of Great Britain, holding that office from 1979 to 1990. A political conservative who was closely aligned with President Reagan, Prime Minister Thatcher was well known for instituting many economic changes in Britain, and for her staunchly anticommunist stance. She
built strong relations with the United States, particularly on issues related to the Soviet Union, which ultimately dissolved. Lady Thatcher’s cognitive problems were revealed by her daughter in 2008.
In this chapter, we consider situations such as those of Rosa Parks, Ronald Reagan, and Margaret Thatcher in which the aging process goes wrong. Such problems happen to families every day across all demographic categories, as is clear when famous people such as President Reagan are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease.
Certainly, Alzheimer’s disease is not part of normal aging, nor are the other problems we consider.
This chapter is about the people who do not make it through adulthood to old age in the usual way. A minority of adults develop mental health difficulties that cause them problems in their daily lives and sometimes rob them of their dignity. We consider how mental health is defined and how these problems are assessed and treated. We focus on several specific problems, including depression, delirium, dementia, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders,
and substance abuse. As we consider different types of mental disorders, we note how each is diagnosed, what is known about causes, and what effective treatments are available.