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Writing Style

Although Adult Development and Aging covers com­plex issues and difficult topics, we use clear, con­cise, and understandable language. We examined all terms to ensure that their use was essential; other­wise, they were eliminated.

The text is aimed at upper-division undergradu­ate students. Although it will be helpful if students have completed an introductory psychology or life­span human development course, the text does not assume this background.

Instructional Aids

The many pedagogical aids in the fifth edition have been retained and enhanced in the sixth edition.

• Learning Aids in the Chapter Text. Each chapter begins with a chapter outline. At the start of each new section, learning objectives are presented...

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Major New Features

The sixth edition represents a thorough revision from the fifth edition, with a new chapter discussing neuroscience and aging. Among the most impor­tant changes are:

• New discussions on the link between brain and behavior.

• New discussions of global aging and the economics of aging.

• New discussions of microgenetic research and the meta-analytic technqiue.

• Revised discussions of osteoporosis, arthritis, theories of aging, and new information about dietary sodium and treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

• New How Do We Know? features in Chapters 2, 3,

4, 10, 11, and 13.

• New or revised Current Controversies features in Chapters 2, 3, 5, 10, 11, 13, and 14.

• New discussion of aging in place, home modification, congregate housing, assisted living, special c...

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Introduction to the British Edition

In The Myth of Male Power, I propose a paradigm shift in our assumption chat we have lived in a male-dominated, patriarchal, sexist world. I am proposing that, in Britain as in the United States, we have lived in a world that has been in various ways both male – and female-dominated, both patriarchal and matriarchal, and more bi-sexist than sexist.

Why in virtually every country in which there is an increase in the divorce rate is there also an increase in the tendency of the government to become a substitute husband? Why can a female Prime Minister increase her popularity by sending only males to their deaths while a male Prime Minister would never even think of increasing his popularity by sending only females to their deaths? In each case the propensity to protea women – no matter what ...

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Judith Gardner and Judy El Bushra

Why were you born?

Why did you arrive at dusk?

In your place a boy Would have been welcome Sweet dates would have Been my reward.

The clan would be rejoicing A lamb would have Been slaughtered For the occasion,

And I would have Been glorified.1

Somalia grabbed international attention in 1992 as the world’s media broadcast images of a people dying from hunger in the midst of a terrifyingly violent conflict between competing warlords and their drug-crazed fighters vying for control of a collapsed state. Later that year television cameras followed American troops as they landed on the beaches of the capital Mogadishu to lead what turned out to be a disastrous United Nations intervention intended to end hunger and restore peace.

The Somali state had collapsed ...

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Mama, PhD

I received my PhD in religious studies, with honors, from Duke University in May 1993. That August I joined the faculty of the University of Florida as an assistant professor. I was never more proud. Five years later I sub­mitted my tenure portfolio, filled with articles and teaching awards, a book and an anthology. I had received several grants during that time, includ­ing one from the American Council of Learned Societies. The university itself had supported my research very generously, both with summer travel grants and grants to match those earned elsewhere, and it was because of the university’s generosity that I could publish as much as I did. Tenure, too, went relatively smoothly. To all intents and purposes, I was one of academe’s young success stories.

During the spring in w...

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Postfeminism, as an expression of a stage in the constant evolutionary movement of feminism, has gained greater currency in recent years. Once seen, somewhat crudely, as ‘anti-feminist’, the term is now understood as a useful conceptual frame of reference encompassing the intersection of feminism with a number of other anti-foundationalist movements including postmodernism, post-structuralism and post-colonialism. Postfeminism represents, as Yeatman (1994:49) claims, feminism’s ‘coming of age’, its maturity into a confident body of theory and politics, representing pluralism and difference and reflecting on its position in relation to other philosophical and political movements similarly demanding change.

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Adult Development and Aging

The 21st century is certainly one of major change. The issues confronting society are the reason that having a solid grounding in research and theory about adult development and aging is essential even for understanding news events. The health care debate of 2009 brought many issues to the fore, including Medicare, end-of-life issues, and longev­ity. Other news stories about genetic breakthroughs, stem cell research, new brain-imaging techniques for studying cognition, and the latest breakthrough in treating dementia were reported quite frequently. To understand why these issues are so critical, one must understand aging in a broader context. That is why Adult Development and Aging is now in its sixth edition.

The first few decades of this century will witness a fundamental change in the ...

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A note on Somali poetry

We have included a number of poems composed by Somali women (and translated from Somali) to illustrate certain points of concern to the authors. Where the poets and translators are known, we have given their names.

In a society without a written common language until 1972 oral poetry has a special place in Somali life. The eminent Somali language scholar, the late Professor B. W. Andrezejewski noted in his introduc­tion to An Anthology of Somali Poetry:

When Sir Richard Burton visited Somalia in 1854 he found that a most striking characteristic of its inhabitants was their love of poetry… so that the phrase ‘a nation of poets’ became current among people acquainted with the Horn of Africa.1

The ‘Somali devotion to poetry’ is more than an appreciation of an art form described by Andrezejew...

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Editors’ note

Because we have attempted to preserve each author’s personal approach, the style and structure of the material varies between chapters. For example, some include notes and bibliographies, others don’t.

On the assumption that Somali spellings might present difficulties for non-Somali readers all the contributors spontaneously chose the most frequently-used spellings of Somali places and names, many of which differ from the spellings according to the 1972 Somali orthography. (In 1972 the Somali language became a unified written language; before that it was oral although there were some written versions in English and some in Arabic.) For example, Baidoa is used instead of Baydhaba, Asha instead of Casha...

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