The findings on academic hiring suggest that many women fared well in the hiring process at Research I institutions, which contradicts some commonly held perceptions of research-intensive universities. If women applied for positions at RI institutions, they had a better chance of being interviewed and receiving offers than had male job candidates. Many departments at Research I institutions, both public and private, have made an effort to increase the numbers and percentage of female faculty in the sciences, engineering, and mathematics. Having women play a visible role in the hiring process, for example, has clearly made a differ­ence. Unfortunately, women continue to be underrepresented in the applicant pool, relative to their representation among the pool of recent Ph. D.s. Institutions may not have effective recruitment plans, as departmental efforts targeted at women were not strong predictors in these surveys of an increased percentage of female applicants.