Evidence of women’s representation in science and engineering is often measured first in the attainment of undergraduate and graduate degrees. [26] In 2004, 50.4 percent of all S&E bachelor’s degrees went to women.[27] Women received the majority of bachelor’s degrees in the agricultural sciences, biological sciences, oceanography, and chemistry, and they were awarded more than 40 percent of the bachelor’s degrees in the earth sciences, mathematics and statistics, and atmo­spheric and other physical sciences, excluding physics.[28]

Of all S&E master’s degrees awarded in 2004, 43.6 percent went to women. They received the majority of master’s degrees in the agricultural and biological sciences and other physical sciences, excluding physics and astronomy. They were awarded over 40 percent of the master’s degrees in the earth sciences and oceanography, mathematics and statistics, and chemistry.[29]

In 2005, 37.7 percent of all S&E doctorate degrees went to women. Women were awarded almost 50 percent of Ph. D.s granted in the biological sciences (National Science Foundation, 2006).