Two statistical tests were carried out. First, a chi-square test of independence of rows was applied to determine whether the pattern of the number of under­graduate courses taught[124] by men and women differed. (These tests were either on three or four degrees of freedom.) The tests were not significant at the.05 level except for electrical engineering. It is important to mention that one could have different patterns without having women teach more of fewer courses. For instance, men might teach 1 or 2 courses more often than women do, who in turn might teach 0 or 3 courses more often, but where the mean number of courses remained close.

Therefore, we added a simple two-sample t-test of the average number of courses for men and women. The means are displayed below for each of the dis­ciplinary areas. The t-tests were all not significant at the.05 for the null hypothesis of no difference, again except for electrical engineering. It is clear from the table that men teach more undergraduate courses than do women.

BIOLOGY

Courses

Taught 0

1

2

3

4

Total

Men 31

55

12

2

0

100

Women 31

58

11

2

2

104

Total 62

113

23

4

2

204

Chi-squared test of independence: 2.05 (4 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.73. Means: Men.85 vs. Women.90, t-test is equal to -0.51 p-value 0.61.

CHEMISTRY

Courses Taught

0

1

2

3

Total

Men

43

49

8

1

101

Women

43

48

4

2

97

Total

86

97

12

3

198

Chi-squared test of independence: 1.60 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.66. Means: Men.67 vs. Women.64, t-test is equal to 0.36 p-value 0.72.

MATHEMATICS

Courses Taught

0

1

2

3

Total

Men

21

30

15

2

68

Women

22

38

24

0

84

Total

43

68

39

2

152

Chi-squared test of independence: 3.39 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.33.

Means: Men.97 vs. Women 1.02, t-test is equal to -0.42 p-value 0.68.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Courses Taught

0

1

2

3

Total

Men

33

46

14

1

94

Women

44

41

4

2

91

Total

77

87

18

3

185

Chi-squared test of independence: 7.70 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.05.

Means: Men.82 vs. Women.60, t-test is equal to 2.09 p-value 0.04.

PHYSICS

Courses Taught

0

1

2

3

Total

Men

33

53

9

0

95

Women

31

66

14

1

112

Total

64

119

23

1

207

Chi-squared test of independence: 2.19 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.53.

Means: Men.75 vs. Women.87, t-test is equal to -1.34 p-value 0.18

CIVIL ENGINEERING

Courses Taught 0

1

2

3

4

Total

Men 22

44

13

4

0

83

Women 36

67

13

3

1

120

Total 58

111

26

7

1

203

Chi-squared test of independence: 2.63 (4 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.62. Means: Men.99 vs. Women.88, t-test is equal to 0.94p-value 0.35.

Percentage of Faculty Members Who Do No Graduate Teaching

Discipline

Men

Women

Chemistry

42.0 (100)

37.5 (96)

Mathematics

63.4 (82)

56.0 (116)

Electrical engineering

55.3 (94)

48.9 (90)

Physics

55.9 (68)

44.6 (83)

Civil engineering

35.1 (97)

22.3 (112)

NOTE: Numbers in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Percentage of Faculty Members Receiving a Reduced Teaching Load When Hired

Discipline

Men

Women

Chemistry

76.9 (52)

80.8 (52)

Mathematics

75.6 (41)

87.0 (69)

Electrical engineering

82.7 (52)

85.5 (55)

Physics

64.5 (31)

71.7 (46)

Civil engineering

70.0 (50)

75.3 (69)

NOTE: Numbers in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Percentage of Faculty Members Who Served on an Undergraduate Thesis or Honors Committee

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

36.6 (93)

45.3 (96)

Chemistry

26.0 (77)

30.4 (79)

Mathematics

15.4 (65)

13.0 (92)

Electrical engineering

36.6 (93)

45.3 (86)

Physics

26.0 (77)

30.4 (79)

Civil engineering

15.4 (65)

13.0 (92)

NOTE: Numbers in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Percentage of Faculty Members Who Served on and Chaired an Undergraduate Thesis or Honors Committee

Discipline

Men

Women

Served

Chair

Served

Chair

Biology

62.30 (38)

37.30 (23)

59.52 (50)

40.78 (34)

Chemistry

57.14 (20)

42.86 (15)

46.15 (24)

53.85 (28)

Mathematics

85.71 (6)

14.29 (1)

30.00 (3)

70.00 (7)

Electrical engineering

43.59 (17)

56.41 (22)

50.00 (17)

50.00 (17)

Physics

62.50 (20)

37.50 (12)

54.54 (18)

45.46 (15)

Civil engineering

62.50 (10)

37.50 (6)

42.86 (12)

57.14 (16)

NOTE: Numbers in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Distribution of Number of Graduate Thesis or Honors Committees for Research I Tenure and Tenure-Track Faculty: Men/Women

Discipline

0

1-3

4-5

6-10

11-30

Total

Biology

9.3

34.3

24.1

22.2

10.2

108

5.1

41.5

12.7

26.3

14.4

118

Chemistry

6.5

32.7

19.6

23.4

17.8

107

6.0

39.0

15.0

25.0

15.0

100

Mathematics

43.7

47.9

5.6

2.8

0

71

35.6

49.4

10.3

3.4

1.2

87

Electrical engineering

11.0

54.0

19.0

12.0

4.0

99

19.0

37.0

25.0

16.0

3.0

100

Physics

15.4

61.5

16.4

5.8

1.0

104

29.9

50.4

17.1

2.6

0

117

Civil engineering

4.8

54.8

23.8

10.7

5.9

84

11.8

18.4

22.2

19.6

14.3

113

NOTE: These are percentages of men and women who fall into each category.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Percentage of Time Spent in Administration or Committee Work on Campus and Service to the Profession Outside the University for Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty at Research I Institutions: Men/Women

Discipline

Mean Hours (standard deviation, sample size)

Biology

13.1 (10.7,

110)

15.6 (11.7,

117)

Chemistry

14.6 (12.5,

108)

14.8 (10.7,

96)

Mathematics

12.7 (14.3,

81)

13.6 (11.0,

82)

Electrical engineering

12.9 (11.3,

101)

17.6 (16.3,

102)

Physics

13.8 (11.5,

108)

13.9 (12.6,

119)

Civil engineering

19.3 (17.9,

85)

17.1 (13.5,

116)

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Distribution of Number of Service Committees for Research I Tenure and Tenure-Track Faculty: Men/Women

Discipline

0

1

2

3

4

5

>5

Total

Biology

34.1

21.4

15.9

13.5

7.9

5.6

1.6

126

25.6

18.8

16.5

18.8

14.3

1.5

4.5

133

Chemistry

30.3

16.4

23.8

18.0

4.9

4.9

1.6

122

25.0

24.1

17.0

18.7

8.0

5.4

1.8

112

Mathematics

49.5

20.2

11.1

9.1

7.1

1.0

2.0

99

41.7

17.5

15.5

13.6

6.8

4.9

0.0

103

Electrical engineering

36.2

28.4

17.2

6.9

6.0

4.3

0.9

116

34.5

21.6

17.2

15.5

6.0

5.2

0.0

116

Physics

24.0

21.5

22.3

18.2

5.0

3.3

5.8

121

30.9

30.1

22.8

00

00

2.9

1.5

2.9

136

Civil engineering

28.9

18.6

22.7

9.3

15.5

2.1

3.1

97

21.9

10.6

25.2

18.7

5.7

9.8

8.1

123

SOURCE: Departmental survey conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Mean Salary by Gender and Professorial Rank for Tenure and Tenure-Track Faculty in Research I Institutions

Discipline

Rank

Mean (1000s) Men

Mean (1000s) Women

Biology

1

101.9 (34)

93.5 (34)

Chemistry

1

112.9 (43)

101.7 (28)

Mathematics

1

106.5 (40)

101.1 (26)

Electrical engineering

1

107.9 (27)

110.2 (33)

Physics

1

110.0 (48)

93.7 (33)

Civil engineering

1

115.0 (24)

102.5 (26)

Biology

2

72.8 (31)

68.2 (48)

Chemistry

2

72.9 (28)

72.7 (36)

Mathematics

2

68.1 (17)

69.0 (29)

Electrical engineering

2

83.8 (25)

93.5 (34)

Physics

2

73.2 (31)

74.8 (34)

Civil engineering

2

81.8 (30)

81.3 (42)

Biology

3

62.2 (35)

59.5 (26)

Chemistry

3

59.6 (33)

62.9 (30)

Mathematics

3

61.1 (22)

58.4 (32)

Electrical engineering

3

76.6 (43)

76.2 (30)

Physics

3

65.1 (26)

65.0 (44)

Civil engineering

3

71.1 (25)

68.9 (42)

NOTES: Rank is denoted as full (1), associate (2), or assistant (3) professor. Salaries are expressed as number of thousands of dollars with number of respondents in parentheses. For example, 34 men at the full professor rank in biology responded that they earn an average of $101,900 per year. Of 1,404 full-time faculty members who responded, only 1,179 included salary data. The salaries expressed are 9-month salaries. Some clearly high outliers were removed. Twenty percent of the respondents replied back with salaries below $100 for 9 months. Since it was likely that these values were actually in the thousands, these numbers were multiplied by 1,000 for the final value rather than omitting the information.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

66.1 (62)

63.3 (49)

Chemistry

71.2 (59)

81.8 (55)

Mathematics

42.9 (35)

29.1 (55)

Electrical engineering

85.2 (61)

77.4 (62)

Physics

71.4 (49)

63.5 (74)

Civil engineering

80.0 (45)

85.5 (69)

NOTES: Only one-half of those surveyed responded to this question. Numbers in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category. For example, 66.1 percent of men in biology out of 62 respondents received summer salary support.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

45.2 (62)

44.9 (49)

Chemistry

50.8 (59)

32.7 (55)

Mathematics

62.9 (35)

80.0 (55)

Electrical engineering

62.3 (61)

53.2 (62)

Physics

59.2 (49)

64.9 (74)

Civil engineering

64.4 (45)

71.0 (69)

NOTES: Only one-half of those surveyed responded to this question. The numbers are expressed in percentages of the total respondents (parentheses). For example, 45.2 percent of male faculty in biol­ogy out of a total of 62 respondents said they had received travel support.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Median Square Footage of Lab Space of Faculty Who Report Doing Experimental Work

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

1200 (97)

1050 (106)

Chemistry

1500 (94)

1500 (88)

Mathematics

a

a

Electrical engineering

550 (50)

450(53)

Physics

1079 (55)

800 (59)

Civil engineering

738 (50)

800 (64)

"Mathematics was excluded from this analysis because the small sample size was inadequate for analysis and ran the risk of potentially violating confidentiality.

NOTE: The median square footage of lab space given to faculty members that identify at least some of their research as “experimental.” The number of respondents is in parentheses.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Faculty Who Have Received More Lab Space Since Hire (Values Are Percentages)

Discipline

Men

Women

%

(n/total)

%

(n/total)

Biology

0.25

14/56

0.28

13/47

Chemistry

0.43

23/54

0.49

23/47

Mathematics

a

a

Electrical engineering

0.24

8/34

0.26

10/38

Physics

0.24

7/29

0.29

12/42

Civil engineering

0.16

5/31

0.14

5/35

Overall

0.28

57/204

0.30

63/209

"Mathematics was excluded from this analysis because the small sample size was inadequate for analysis and ran the risk of potentially violating confidentiality.

NOTE: Sample sizes are indicated in parentheses.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

99.2 (107)

94.2 (120)

Chemistry

92.5 (107)

88.8 (98)

Mathematics

100.0 (68)

97.0 (66)

Electrical engineering

90.4 (104)

88.8 (98)

Physics

99.0 (103)

97.2 (109)

Civil engineering

87.5 (80)

88.6 (114)

NOTES: The numbers are expressed in percent of total respondents (in parentheses). For example, 99.2 percent of men in biology, out of a total of 107 respondents, stated that they had sufficient equipment.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Number of Postdoctorate Students for Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty in Research I Institutions (presented by Men and Women)

Discipline

0

1

2

3

4

>4

Weighted

Average

Total

Biology

37.7

25.5

11.3

2.8

7.5

9.4

1.33

106

51.3

25.2

6.7

2.5

5.0

5.9

0.96

119

Chemistry

46.4

15.2

15.2

8.0

4.5

7.1

1.23

112

39.6

30.7

12.9

6.9

3.0

3.0

1.04

101

Civil engineering

76.6

11.7

11.7

16.9

0.0

0.0

0.86

77

76.9

15.4

6.6

12.1

1.1

0.0

0.69

91

Electrical engineering

79.8

19.2

9.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.38

104

72.5

16.7

00

00

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.34

102

Mathematics

42.1

30.8

19.6

0.0

1.9

0.9

0.82

107

37.8

40.3

16.0

1.7

0.8

0.8

0.85

119

Physics

74.4

20.9

3.5

5.8

0.0

0.0

0.45

86

74.6

18.6

5.1

4.2

0.8

0.0

0.45

118

NOTES: Numbers are expressed as percentage of total and provide the distribution of the number of postdoctorate students and the number of postdoctorate students for each discipline. The final column “>4” deicts when the number of doctoral students was 5 or greater.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

50.0 (92)

41.6 (89)

Chemistry

54.0 (100)

30.7 (88)

Civil engineering

72.2 (72)

46.9 (81)

Electrical engineering

56.2 (89)

47.9 (94)

Mathematics

54.9 (102)

44.6 (112)

Physics

35.3 (68)

28.6 (98)

NOTES: Numbers are expressed as percentage of total respondents (in parentheses). For example, 50 percent of men in biology out of 92 respondents believed that they received sufficient clerical support.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

53.8 (52)

53.7 (67)

Chemistry

54.5 (55)

60.3 (63)

Mathematics

54.0 (50)

50.0 (88)

Electrical engineering

48.4 (64)

72.9 (59)

Physics

28.2 (39)

51.8 (56)

Civil engineering

49.2 (63)

58.5 (82)

NOTES: Faculty in this table includes tenure-track and tenured faculty. Numbers in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Distribution of the Number of Graduate Students for Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty in Research I Institutions (presented by Men and Women)

Number of Students

Sample

Discipline

0

1

2

3

4

5

>5

Size

Biology

6.6

9.4

21.7

24.5

13.2

6.6

17.9

106

6.7

14.3

14.3

16.0

13.4

5.9

29.4

119

Chemistry

4.5

5.4

8.9

18.8

8.9

7.1

46.4

112

1.0

5.9

8.9

8.9

16.8

11.9

45.5

101

Mathematics

36.4

30.0

11.7

9.1

9.1

0.0

3.9

77

38.5

23.1

20.9

4.4

6.6

2.2

4.4

91

Electrical engineering

6.7

9.6

11.5

8.7

9.6

7.7

46.2

104

4.9

5.9

00

00

10.8

15.7

00

00

45.1

102

Physics

6.5

16.8

18.7

24.3

13.1

10.3

10.3

107

9.2

20.2

17.6

21.8

11.8

7.6

11.8

119

Civil engineering

5.8

4.6

11.6

16.2

17.4

11.6

32.6

86

2.5

7.6

6.8

12.7

11.0

11.9

47.5

118

NOTE: Final column of “>5” depicts 6 or greater graduate students.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Mean Number of Articles Published in Refereed Journals (sole and co-authored) Over the Past 3 Years for Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty in Research I Institutions

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

6.7(81)

6.2 (81)

Chemistry

15.8 (89)

9.4 (79)

Civil engineering

5.3 (69)

4.5 (79)

Electrical engineering

5.8 (102)

7.5 (98)

Mathematics

12.4 (94)

10.4 (106)

Physics

7.6 (85)

6.3 (109)

NOTES: Numbers in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Discipline

Gender

Mentor

Probability of Grant

SD

n

Biology

Male

No

0.91

0.06

12

Biology

Male

Yes

0.87

0.10

15

Biology

Female

No

0.64

0.14

5

Biology

Female

Yes

0.88

0.10

5

Chemistry

Male

No

0.89

0.11

12

Chemistry

Male

Yes

0.96

0.04

9

Chemistry

Female

No

0.77

0.08

6

Chemistry

Female

Yes

0.95

0.04

12

Mathematics

Male

No

0.72

0.19

10

Mathematics

Male

Yes

0.83

0.05

6

Mathematics

Female

No

0.59

0.17

7

Mathematics

Female

Yes

0.91

0.08

12

Electrical engineering

Male

No

0.84

0.16

9

Electrical engineering

Male

Yes

0.87

0.11

21

Electrical engineering

Female

No

0.37

0.09

12

Electrical engineering

Female

Yes

0.86

0.06

12

Physics

Male

No

0.9

0.05

13

Physics

Male

Yes

0.92

0.04

10

Physics

Female

No

0.71

0.18

12

Physics

Female

Yes

0.95

0.03

19

Civil engineering

Male

No

0.87

0.07

10

Civil engineering

Male

Yes

0.53

0.04

12

Civil engineering

Female

No

1

0.00

11

Civil engineering

Female

Yes

1

0.00

12

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Discipline

Gender

Mentor

Probability of Grant

SD

n

Biology

Male

No

0.91

0.09

12

Biology

Male

Yes

0.93

0.12

5

Biology

Female

No

0.83

0.12

23

Biology

Female

Yes

0.97

0.02

10

Chemistry

Male

No

0.94

0.07

13

Chemistry

Male

Yes

0.95

0.07

8

Chemistry

Female

No

0.89

0.09

12

Chemistry

Female

Yes

0.98

0.01

7

Mathematics

Male

No

0.54

0.23

9

Mathematics

Male

Yes

0.74

0.07

2

Mathematics

Female

No

0.85

0.1

12

Mathematics

Female

Yes

0.98

0.03

3

Electrical engineering

Male

No

0.88

0.05

9

Electrical engineering

Male

Yes

0.87

0.09

3

Electrical engineering

Female

No

0.7

0.14

10

Electrical engineering

Female

Yes

0.95

0.02

10

Physics

Male

No

0.93

0.05

11

Physics

Male

Yes

0.96

0.05

10

Physics

Female

No

0.88

0.08

13

Physics

Female

Yes

0.98

0.02

17

Civil engineering

Male

No

0.87

0.09

12

Civil engineering

Male

Yes

0.95

0.02

8

Civil engineering

Female

No

1

0

16

Civil engineering

Female

Yes

1

0

11

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Percentage of Faculty Missing Salary Data by Gender and Discipline

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

20.6 (126)

17.3 (133)

Chemistry

13.9 (122)

15.2 (112)

Civil engineering

20.2 (99)

15.5 (103)

Electrical engineering

18.1 (116)

16.4 (116)

Mathematics

12.4 (121)

15.4 (136)

Physics

17.5 (97)

10.6 (123)

NIOTES: Number in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category. For example, 20.6 percent of men in biology out of 126 total respondents were missing salary data.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Percentage of Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty at Research I Institutions That Were Nominated for at Least One Award

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

28.4 (109)

15.1 (119)

Chemistry

39.0 (113)

38.6 (101)

Mathematics

31.7 (82)

18.3 (93)

Electrical engineering

19.0 (105)

25.2 (103)

Physics

32.4 (108)

35.2 (122)

Civil engineering

15.3 (85)

23.9 (117)

NOTES: Number in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category. For example, 28.4 percent of men in biology out of 109 total respondents have been nominated for an award. SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Percentage of Tenured and Tenure-Track Research I Faculty with Offers to Leave

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

24.1 (79)

22.3 (94)

Chemistry

38.8 (85)

25.7 (74)

Mathematics

18.1 (72)

33.3 (66)

Electrical engineering

29.3 (58)

46.6 (73)

Physics

36.5 (85)

28.6 (84)

Civil engineering

47.8 (67)

43.8 (73)

NOTES: Number in parentheses are the total number of respondents in each category. For example, 24.1 percent of men in biology out of 79 respondents stated that they had received offers from other universities.

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Percentage of Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty at Research I Institutions Planning to Leave or Retire

Discipline

Men

Women

Biology

43.1

45.8

Chemistry

31.3

41.0

Mathematics

45.6

41.2

Electrical engineering

29.0

26.5

Physics

31.5

28.3

Civil engineering

36.5

42.5

SOURCE: Survey of faculty conducted by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Sci­ence, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

Appendix 5-1