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This section considers the employment sector of those who were employed full-time. NRC (2001a:102) noted that “sector of employment is a fundamental dimension of the scientific career that affects work experience, opportunities,

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30

CD

CL

20

10

0

FIGURE A2-5 Percentage of females among doctorates employed full-time by discipline, 1995-2003.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995-2003. Tabulated by the NRC.

employment security, and prestige.” An often-used distinction among employ­ment sectors for doctorate holders in S&E is industry, government, and education. Often, education is narrowly defined to encompass doctoral scientists and engi­neers working at colleges and universities that award at least a two-year degree (NRC, 2001a). In this section, however, education includes K-12. Outside of edu­cation, the other employment sectors include industry not-for-profit organizations; self-employed persons; local, state, or federal government; or the U. S. military.

According to previous literature, employed women with doctorates in S&E were more likely to be in academia and less likely to be in industry (NRC, 2001a). This finding was echoed by the NSF, which noted that women were more likely than men to be at 4-year academic institutions and less likely to be in business or industry (NSF, 2007). The authors argued that these differences “primarily stem from differences in occupation. Women are less likely than men to be engineers or physical scientists, which are occupations that tend to be in business or industry” (p. 66). The NSF’s final point, as well as findings from NRC (2001a), suggested that differences in employment sector vary by discipline; that is, men and women in different areas of S&E distribute themselves differently across possible employ­ment sectors.

Table A2-2 and Figure A2-6 examine the distribution of male and female S&E doctorates employed full-time across two employment sectors: Education

TABLE A2-2 Doctoral Scientists and Engineers Employed Full-Time by Sector and Gender, 1995-2003

Gender/Sector

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

Men

Education

124,770

125,252

128,335

128,170

131,628

Other

151,115

163,076

179,519

184,260

179,588

Percent Education

.45

.43

.42

.41

.42

Women

Education

29,759

32,659

35,726

39,621

43,828

Other

21,195

24,126

29,880

33,585

36,117

Percent Education

.58

.58

.54

.54

.55

Years

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995-2003. Tabulated by the NRC.

Подпись: 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003Подпись: FemaleПодпись: Maleimage38100

90

80

70

g 60

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50

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40

30

20

10

0

□ Academic □ Nonacademic

FIGURE A2-6 Percentage of doctorates employed full-time in education and other sectors by gender, 1995-2003.

NOTE: The percentage of women employed full-time in the education sector appeared to be increasing (see Figure A2-7).

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995-2003. Tabulated by the NRC.

50 45 40 35 ■£ 30

Подпись: 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 Ynao (D о

25

CL

20 15 10 5 0

FIGURE A2-7 Percentage of women amongtiiefull-time education workforce, including K-12 education, 1995-2003.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995-2003. Tabulated by the NRC.

and Other.[110] As Figure A2-6 shows, women were more likely to be in the educa­tion sector than men.