The survey data suggest that positive changes have taken place and continue to occur. At the same time, the data should not be mistakenly interpreted as indicating that male and female faculty in math, science, and engineering have reached full equality and representation, and we caution against premature complacency. Women remain underrepresented among science and engineering faculty and in the tenure-track applicant pool for faculty positions in all disciplinary areas examined. Furthermore, few departments surveyed reported extensive efforts to increase gender diversity of the applicant pool. Much work remains to be done by institutions and professional disciplinary societies to accomplish full representation of men and women in academic departments. And much additional research is needed to understand the full career paths of female academics, from receipt of Ph. D. to retirement, and to document gender differences in other disciplines, other types of institutions, and other types of faculty positions.