The 2001 National Academies’ study, From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers (NRC, 2001a), examined the careers of men and women scientists and engineers using data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) for four selected years: 1973, 1979, 1989, and 1995. The first part of this appendix provides descriptive data from the SDR for 1995 to 2003, the time period when the surveys of faculty and depart­ments were initiated.[103] This overview presents data on basic trends in female par­ticipation and standing among science and engineering (S&E) faculty for 1995 to 2003, including the number of employed doctorates, the fields in which scientists and engineers worked, and the proportions who worked in academia. Academics are further disaggregated by the types of institutions in which they worked, their fields of study, their tenure status, and their professorial rank. It is important to remember that the SDR covers doctoral recipients in all fields of science and engineering and working in all sectors of the economy. This appendix focuses only on those doctoral scientists and engineers who were employed full-time and whose doctorate was in the natural sciences and engineering, excluding the social sciences.[104]