This study is necessarily limited. Academia in the United States is both broad and varied, and the factors affecting the career tracks of female Ph. D.s in science and engineering are diverse and complex. This report focuses on a small but vital segment of higher education, a specific population of faculty members, and factors affecting academic careers largely controlled by institutions. It does not cover all of higher education, all faculty members, or all factors affecting career tracks or decisions. Put succinctly, the report examines key institutional transitions and experiences of male and female, full-time, assistant, associate, and full professors in the natural sciences and engineering at Research I institutions.