Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibil­ity given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien­tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www. national-academies. org


Claude R. Canizares, Co-Chair, Vice President for Research and

Associate Provost and Bruno Rossi Professor of Experimental Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sally E. Shaywitz, Co-Chair, Audrey G. Ratner Professor in Learning Development and Co-Director, Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity, School of Medicine, Yale University Linda Abriola, Dean of Engineering, Tufts University Jane Buikstra, Regents’ Professor, Arizona State University School of Human Evolution and Social Change

Alicia Carriquiry, Professor of Statistics, Iowa State University Ronald Ehrenberg, Director, Cornell Higher Education Research Institute and Irving M. Ives Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Economics, Cornell University

Joan Girgus, Professor of Psychology and Special Assistant to the Dean of the Faculty, Princeton University

Arleen Leibowitz, Professor of Public Policy, School of Public Affairs, University of California at Los Angeles Thomas N. Taylor, Distinguished Professor, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity Research Institute, University of Kansas

Lilian Wu, Program Executive, Global University Relations, IBM Technology Strategy and Innovation

Study Staff

Catherine Didion, Study Director (from September 1, 2007)

Peter Henderson, Study Director (from October 15, 2005 until August 31, 2007) Jong-on Hahm, Study Director (through October 14, 2005)

Constance F. Citro, Director, Committee on National Statistics

Michael L. Cohen, Senior Program Officer

John Sislin, Program Officer

Elizabeth Briggs, Senior Program Associate

Elizabeth Scott, Project Assistant

Jessica Buono, Research Associate

Jacqueline Martin, Senior Program Assistant