The distributed work force is becoming more prevalent in many organizations. Increasingly, e­business requires employees to work across office boundaries such as from their homes, outstations, and different countries. Employees often work in temporary groups to fulfill particular organiza­tional tasks. These are known as virtual teams, who due to geographical, organizational or time dispersion, rely heavily on IT such as computer – mediated communications (CMC) to accomplish one or more organizational goals (Powell, Piccoli, & Ives, 2004).

The Internet and other forms of CMC have allowed people to mask their identities. Anonym­ity, a technology characteristic, has affected how people behave and react. In computer-mediated teams, anonymity has the effect of encouraging participation of all members (Nunamaker et al., 1991). According to the minority influence theory (Nemeth, 1986), the resultant increase ofminority participation would lead to more and better ideas generated. Earlier work has shown that anonymous communication is more effective for creative tasks (Tyran et al., 1992). However, whether the effect is consistent for different group compositions remains unknown.

Gender has been considered one of the fun­damental personal characteristics that profoundly influence individual perceptions, attitudes, and performance (Christofides, Islam, & Desmarais, 2009; Lind, 1999). Gender differences have been shown to affect collaboration as males and females differ in their collaboration and communication styles. For instance, men tend to be more aggres­sive and argumentative in communication than women (Herring, 1996). Moreover, in electronic discussions, male participants tend to dominate the conversation and are more agonistic (Guiller & Durndell, 2007; Robertson, Hewitt, & Scar – damalia, 2003).

Men and women interact differently with different genders in anonymous and identified virtual teams (Lind, 1999; Thomson, 2006a). In anonymous virtual teams, men and women may perceive genders differently and may even “fake” their own gender to garner certain results (Postmes, Spears, & Lea, 1998). Thus, in this study, we at­tempt to examine the joint effects of gender and anonymity in virtual teams, specifically comparing between all-female and all-male teams.

Based on theoretical research including task and relationship orientation and the social identity model of deindividuation (Spears & Lea, 1992), gender and anonymity are conceived to affect outcomes in virtual teams (Lind, 1999). The paper also intends to explore the team dynamics and intervening processes that enable the outcomes of performance and satisfaction to occur. The re­search question is, how does gender and anonymity affect group processes and subsequent outcomes of performance and satisfaction in virtual teams?

The paper will begin with a review of gender differences with regard to computer-mediated communication. The effect of anonymity in virtual teams and the interplay of gender and anonymity will then be explored followed by a review of group processes. The next section describes the research methodology. The case study method is employed and template coding and causal loop diagramming methods were utilized to analyze the data, both within the case, and across the cases. Based on these analyses, a theoretical framework is presented that maps the interdependencies of gender, anonymity, group processes and outcomes. The last section highlights several managerial and research implications drawn from the research findings and the study’s limitations.