Even more problematic is the lack of protection or assistance for women who have been trafficked.55 Despite the new victim/witness protection law in 2004, the funds had not been appropriated for its implementation until very recently (Duban 2006, 50). According to the U. S. State Department, only “[f]our victims of trafficking benefited from the program in 2005.”56 Until at least 2006, there were no state shelters specifically for trafficking victims, even for those who have been deported, and now there are just two, in Karelia and St. Petersburg^7 There is no law or practice to provide for resident status for a foreign victim, perhaps leading to involuntary deportations. There is no national referral mechanism to coordinate the work of law enforcement and service-providing agencies (Duban
2006, 50), although the U. S. government supported a series of conferences to encourage cooperation between police and NGOs.58 Unsurprisingly, in this context, victims have generally been unwilling to cooperate with law enforcement. There are a handful of NGO shelters, but with few spots and few women. For example, in a recent year, the Angel Coalition had eighty-four women temporarily in their shelters.59 In October of 2006, the IOM in Moscow announced a €4 million program to help women who had been trafficked and then deported to Russia, with a Moscow shelter.60 But as of 2007 the shelter was relying on a medical model and, while working with some NGOs directly, IOM has not coordinated with existing NGO networks61 This lack of engagement has alienated some Russian activists. Located in a private—not a state—hospital, the shelter has no support from Russian authorities. In 2007, the national Public Chamber, a part of the Russian government, gave some small grants to three anti-trafficking NGOs, but most victim assistance is funded by international grants (U. S Department of State 2007).