What bear not in the fairy tale, and in the nature?
As far as there corresponds "cultural" shape of bears to their natural nature? Let’s begin with that today in the nature 7 species of these animals which unite in Ursidae family, from an armor meet. Ursus – "bear" (from here and a female name – Ursula).
I.Shishkin «Morning in the pine wood». I.Shishkin, commons.wikimedia.org
Despite distinctions between species of bears, they are difficult for confusing with other predators. All bears are the quite densely combined animals with dense wool, the massive head, a short tail and powerful sharp-clawed paws. They go, leaning on all foot and rolling over (for what them and nicknamed "clumsy"). However visible awkwardness is very deceptive – if necessary bears can quickly run, speeding up to 60 km/h.
The most known bear is brown, widespread in the woods almost on all Northern hemisphere. Purely brown it happens not always – some individuals are more light (reddish), some are more dark (almost black). And at old bears the noble gray hair is at all shown.
I Seek To Help & Repair!, commons.wikimedia.org
Craig Morgan, commons.wikimedia.org
Carl Chapman, commons.wikimedia.org
Hillebrand, Steve, commons.wikimedia.org
By the way, exactly so – «gray-haired, grayish» – the name "grizzly" – one of the largest subspecies of a brown bear is translated. However, the Latin name "horribilis" ("awful") is much more impressive than it.
One of tourists saw the Georgian hunters bearing carcass of the killed bear, and shouts, pointing a finger:
– Grizzly!!!! Grizzly!!!!
One of Georgians with advantage answers:
– Slyushy, daragy! Zachem gnawed! Hands knocked down!
Even more largely other subspecies – Kadiak received the name from the island with the same name and living in the North of Canada and on Alaska. The weight кадьяков can reach 750 kg, and growth – 3 m.
It is easy to guess that at such dimensions a bear not so that good-natured clodhopper to whom it represent in animated films. To meet face to face this predator not especially pleasantly for his behavior is unpredictable. Usually at a meeting with the person the bear retires, but if the animal is hungry and is (God forbid) wounded, it can easily attack. To a course there is all – the mighty force supported with weight, huge canines and 12-centimetric claws.
I.A.Krylov «Peasant and Worker»:
The peasant did not manage to gasp,
As the bear pressed it…
R. Kipling «World with a bear»:
Toothless, bezguby, beznosy, with the broken speech, without eyes,
Asking from gate a handout, he mutters the story –
Again and again the same since morning to deep darkness:
«Do not conclude world with the Bear that goes, as we».
The prosecutor showed the certificate, but the bear was not frightened …
So, in 1823 the huge grizzly attacked captain Smith – at first lifted up under it a horse, and then seized the horseback rider by the head. Though an animal could shoot down, he managed to tear off to the captain an ear and almost removed from the head a scalp. It was necessary to Smith directly on a place to sew a skin tatter to the head a usual needle with a thread…
Other grizzly – by a nickname Old Mozes – appeared more successful and frightened the State of Colorado the whole 45 years – from 1869 to 1914. During this time he was in time заломать eight hundred cows and to kill five people (the truth, only those who tried to shoot it). It left even more people stutterers for quite often liked to arrange "acts of intimidation" – crept to a fire, suddenly jumped out and with a roar rushed about on camp.
Fearlessness of bears is quite proved – in the nature they practically have no natural enemies. Quite often predators people "corrupt": for example, despite a ban, feed up them in national parks. And then are surprised, why bears visit their tents or beg, braking cars directly on the highway.
It is said that in the State of Alaska even there is a law, forbidding to awake a bear, that with it… to be photographed (it would be desirable to look at the "hero" who has created similar precedent). Quite eloquent posters can be met and in settlements of Canada where quite often visit not only brown, but also polar bears: «Do not become object of statistics. Do not go round an animal. Do not tease it. Keep aloof».
On Alaska for protection against bears recommend to carry with itself a hand bell and pepper spray. As a result, the dung of a grizzly is easy for distinguishing from a dung of an ordinary bear: at usual in shit the shell of nuts and fish bones, and shit of a grizzly smells as pepper, and in it hand bells come across.
Cretins and in Russia suffice. Literally during writing of this article on the Internet there was video shot by any bastards from the Sakhalin region which tried to move a bear the SUV, and eight time in a row. However, it was possible not only to escape to a wounded animal from under wheels of torturers, but also in rage to tear a wheel. Hooligans, it seems, caught, and now look for a poor bear who can quite revenge people – and absolutely innocent…
It is necessary to tell, we and were so lucky that a bear not a pure predator. On big game like deer and wild boars it hunts infrequently. It is much simpler to use less quick production – to find drop, to catch for fish at the river during a spawning season, to find in a rotten tree of larvae, to ruin a bee nest or to "thin out" an ant hill (in a stomach of one of such "gourmands" found some kgs муравьёв). It is a lot of in a bear diet and plants – leaves, berries, fruits, nuts…
To touch food to a bear at his dimensions not from a hand. After all by autumn it is necessary to manage to develop a solid grease layer which will "feed" an animal during long wintering in a den. Bears suit dens where it is necessary – under a windbreak, in a cave or the hole dug in the earth. In October-November the clumsy will get there and will depart to a dream.
High-grade hibernation it to call difficult – body temperature of an animal falls on only 3-5 degrees. Therefore the bear can easily wake up from a strong irritant, unlike the same gopher who sleeps аки the hardened corpse. If the woken bear does not manage to fall asleep again, it turns in "rod" – nervous, hungry and consequently especially dangerous.
«You love labels, love also a chill!» – drunk bees shouted, pulling out from a den of a bear on snow.
Surprisingly, but childbirth at she-bears passes in the same winter. In fact, they represent only small "break" in the middle of bear dreams. The born cubs remind future owners of a taiga a little – in comparison with mother they are extremely small (500-800 grams) and in addition are blind and deaf. In medieval "Bestiaries" even wrote that newborn bear cubs are born shapeless, like a piece of clay, and the form to them is given by a female, licking language.
Actually after the delivery cubs crawl to parent nipples then all family continues to sleep sluggishly and immoderately blissfully till spring. Thus during hibernation bears do not defecate at all not to dirty a den. They have a peculiar safety valve – a butt plug, and accumulated the kcal once again is processed.
On spring the she-bear gets out on light with already half-meter bear cubs. Quite often to this brood (segoletka) it is beaten last year’s (пестуны) which helps mother to look after the younger.
In the following article I will tell about why the bear began to associate, first of all, with Russia.