What is the projective psychological tests?
One of all of known instruments of psychological diagnostics – tests. It is possible to test almost any aspect of mentality – memory, attention, and even the personality. There is an opinion that all psychologists use tests. That the psychologist nearly from a threshold will suggest to be tested and everything will tell about you! Generally, everything is not so iridescent.
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The science, of course, moves forward, and differently can be. No, exact tests are. That investigate the cognitive sphere: memory, attention, features of perception and so forth. But they will tell nothing about the personality. Namely with personal problems to psychologists adults more often address.
For personality research there is a lot of tests and different. But alas, they do not come nearer at all to accuracy of cognitive tests. Yes after all and the last far are not absolute. We "measure" the person! At which attentiveness, working capacity and other depend on a situation, a situation, internal state. And high-quality research of the cognitive sphere demands rechecks, application of different tests, comparison of results etc. What to speak about the personality?
And in personal consultation many psychologists at all do not use tests. There is no need. More information will give their personal impression. Especially, interpretation of personal tests is difficult. Here after all there are no exact measurements and criteria. The personality you will not measure and everything in it you will not consider!
There are the complex multiple-factor tests studying the different parties of the personality. But at all advantages they will not consider everything. Besides in serious texts (and speech only about them!), even questionnaires with answers "yes" and "no", a number of personal parameters "is not simply measured". Various factors are interpreted in interdependence, interaction with each other.
On detailed interpretation time is necessary. It is good, if ahead a course of consultations. And if meeting single? To ask the client to come tomorrow?
And nevertheless projective tests in consultation are used. For example, the psychologist can suggest to spread out to you multi-colored cards on preference of flowers. In other words, as it is pleasant. It is called Lyusher’s test; appointment – to remove "cut" of an emotional condition at present.
For its interpretation there are detailed instructions – but in consultation of rather rough estimate, offhand. At some experience it becomes quickly and "approximately". Sometimes Lyusher’s showing an actual emotional condition the test, carry out at the beginning and at the end of a meeting, estimating efficiency of a session. That is – whether to the client it became better.
In principle, to you can offer and a test questionnaire, but it hastily not to process. Another matter "tests pictures". Probably, all "know" according to films Rorshakh’s test – «ink spots». I will tell honest, to me it was not necessary to use it and whether actively it is used in consultation – I do not know. Idea that the person "puts" in not – understand – what – spots-figures the images corresponding to the attitude.
This principle is applicable to all projective tests. All the same: whether we finish incomplete phrases, whether we describe the events in the drawings offered by the psychologist or we draw. Risunochny tests are especially evident. Ourselves draw, from the beginning to the end. Drawing as the cliche, reflects mass of the personal features, actual problems.
But the test – not only means of diagnostics. Projective test (especially risunochny!) – it is an excellent reason for the conversation, channelizing for work. Such tests very precisely show features of the personality, the social relations, perceptions of and others. After some minimum explanations a lot of things is visible and not to the psychologist.
Problems arise not "in general", and at the concrete personality with all its features. And to work – not with a problem, and with the personality.
Besides we know (more precisely, to a floor – consciously we suspect) about ourselves much more than are ready to open before others. And before the psychologist. We and are not ready to "look" at this knowledge directly. And even if something about the client is obvious to the psychologist – not the fact that the psychologist will tell about it. There is no sense if the client is not ready to apprehend this information.
And drawing was made by the client, it where is more convincing. Through discussion of drawing simpler happens to approach to discussion.
– Same you drew! Look, what at a figure interesting proportions! Who it? Also that does? And prompt, on what she leans? And here this part is specially so allocated?
And so on.
Besides projective tests – the tool universal, not adhered to any concrete school of psychotherapy. After all speech about consultation, probably, short-term or even the single. There is no time for dough processing; thus the client is unfamiliar, and to help it it is desirable right now. Here projective tests can become at the same time means and diagnostics, and therapies. Naturally, it is possible to use them and out of consultation.
In end – very short digression by projective techniques.
So, all of them "measure" the personality: its main lines; features of perception of the world and other people; typical external manifestations; emotional reactions; motivation and so forth.
– uncertainty, a vagueness of offered incentives;
– there are no set versions of answers;
– there are no answers correct/erroneous.
Types of projective techniques:
The associative: it is offered to give association on shown visual or verbal incentive, to structure an amorphous material (an example – Rorshakh’s test).
Are similar to the previous interpretive techniques – images with uncertain situations. Where figures of talking people are obvious, for example, only. A situation, a plot also it is necessary to interpret (an example – Thematic Appertseptivny the Test (TAT)).
With incomplete incentives: it is necessary to finish offered phrases, drawings and so forth (a method of «incomplete offers»).
The constructive: the client is offered to design something on a task, from the offered material – a collage from pictures; a scene, a plot from figures…
Risunochnye – we draw always themselves; displaying actual problems, up to the corporal.
Role-playing games, psychodrama.
Ranging: the offered set of incentives needs to be distributed, проранжировать on preferences, importance and so forth to signs (Lyusher’s test).
The main thing – not to try to be engaged in analysis offered at a meeting with the psychologist of tests. Business this so ungrateful, as a vyiskivaniye a flaw in work of the psychologist. Always it is necessary to remember, why you came to the psychologist. And together to work!