The theory of the broken windows. How it influences our everyday life?
Very strongly. Homo sapiens, the person reasonable, an animal public how some inveterate individualists were proud. And still this theory – the scientific proof of that human in us is much less, than ourselves consider. Many face manifestations of this theory every day, at all without noticing it.
This theory was formulated by two sociologists James Wilson and George Kelling. They studied dynamics of development of a criminogenic situation on streets. And here a conclusion which they made: «prevention of small offenses, such as vandalism, public alcoholism, jumps through turnstiles in the subway, etc. (the so-called zero tolerance), creates the intolerance atmosphere to crimes as a whole and helps to prevent more major crimes, and also to detain the recidivists who are usually neglecting rules of behavior in public places». It is quoted on Wikipedia.
In simple terms, where the broken window is not closed up, soon all windows and the general crime rate in this place will be interrupted (the house, the street, the area, the city, the country) will quickly grow. Very quickly! Almost instantly! At the sight of even the slightest violation of the standard norms people cease to behave "in a civilized way". Not all, certainly. But most part precisely!
To see consequences from this theory it was necessary to everyone. The piece of paper thrown by someone as if draws round itself the thrown garbage though here it is a ballot box, a row! The chief did not besiege the subordinate for a rough word, all at once began this chief to be rude. There were one graffiti on a pure wall, and very quickly all wall already размалёвана «petroglyphic painting». Etc.
As well as any psychological theory, at «the broken windows» had many critics. «All the matter is that no interrelation between the thrown pieces of paper, the razmalyovanny walls broken by windows and level of offenses is present and cannot be», – numerous opponents spoke. However the theory of the broken windows is checked by numerous experiments. To whom it is interesting, can glance in Wikipedia, but conclusions from these experiments are unequivocal: where there are signs of violation unlawful, this unlawful start to make and those who before it did not make.
Conclusions scientists made the following:
There are people who will always break an established order, under any circumstances.
There are people who will not break an established order never, under no circumstances.
There are people "fluctuating" which will break an order when «see, all break», and purity and other external signs of "order" will not break an order, when around.
Such "fluctuating" in any human society the vast majority. And it is enough someone to break order from «ideological violators», for it will reach and "fluctuating". The order quickly develops into chaos.
By the way, inverse relationship is true also. If someone it will be persistent «to glaze the broken windows», level of offenses and crime will quickly go on recession. It is proved in very large social experiment which turned the American city of New York from "sheer hell" into the safest in America the city.
Chronology of events…
80th years of the 20th eyelid. Differently as a hell nobody called the New York subway. Razmalyovannye the cars, the broken turnstiles, garbage mountains, a rise in crime. To pay for the ticket in those days was movetony, to jump through a turnstile was where it is simpler, and for it anything did not threaten.
The management of New York appointed the new managing director of the New York underground. Called him David Gunn.
With what it began? From repainting of trains, their cleaning of graffiti. It would seem, strange … On the contrary!
«Graffiti are a symbol of crash of system. If to begin process of reorganization of the organization, the victory over graffiti should become the first. Without having won this fight, no reforms will take place. We are ready to introduce new trains in cost in 10 million dollars everyone but if we do not protect them from vandalism – it is known that will turn out. They will hold on one day, and then them will spoil».
With almost religious eagerness workers of an underground washed and recoloured trains. In total – both passengers, and workers of the subway – saw that "order" is observed!
And one more important action. Free riders. The underground desperately needed money, and only small part of passengers paid for tickets. Gunn employed the managing director of safety who put at a turnstile dressed in "civil" policemen. Well also that, policemen were there and earlier. The difference consisted that to the policeman was cheaper" earlier not to notice the violator. Rules ordered to leave at capture the subway, to issue violation and to convoy the violator to court. Then to make the entire account. And all this without any compensation. And even there could be a punishment from the administration! A workplace left, statistics spoiled …
And now was to catch the violator enough and to put at platform edge. For violators there comes a police squad in shape, examines, makes out violation, finger-prints and checks on a participle to other offenses. Then escorts to the bus which is lucky in a police station. And all this on a look at passengers and workers of the subway! The crime and offenses in the subway sharply began to decline.
Called this chief William Bratton. After it the mayor appointed the chief of police of New York.
So «the theory of the broken windows» was checked on the scale of one of the largest cities of the world. The crime rate in the city fell not so quickly, as in the subway. But over time New York became the safest megalopolis of America.
It meant that the theory works! However, with one reservation.
Layer of the person in us slightly
it is layered зыбко and it is disturbing,
easy to cattle us to return,
to lift back it is very difficult.
It is possible to see, how near the thrown stub the garbage mountain very quickly grows, and here even if this garbage to clean, most likely, people will litter all the same the same place. So, on a habit …
It is possible to make some vital conclusions of all aforesaid:
1. Not to break an order most even in trifles, because: «the stub thrown on the pure street quite can pour out over time in the obossanny lifts, the broken phone booths, the used-up walls and the broken lamps».
2. In due time to liquidate any, even slightest, "order" violations. Yes it is heavy. Certainly, garbage the yard keepers, – a house management, and offenses – police should be engaged in the broken windows … But, maybe, therefore we so badly also live, what we wait, «the kind barin here will come and everything for us will make»?
3. It is impossible to forgive «order violation». Punishment should be inevitable and rigid. This point to execute where it is heavier previous. But it is necessary … «To Cheloveki reasonable» on another simply do not understand …
«You know, this planet has on me strange influence. I can not smoke here. Here everything is so devilishly pure. It is not soiled. I can not smoke, I can not litter. I can not behave, as on picnic». Phillip Dick. "Colonists".
While these words not about our native planet. And it is a pity! Though … Perhaps we will start to collect pieces of paper and to insert glasses into the broken windows? In literal and figurative sense.