Whether there are in Russia places with peace nuclear explosions?
Opposition of the USSR with the USA turned back, as we know, race of arms. Thus the special emphasis was made on tests and accumulation of nuclear warheads.
Venue of nuclear explosion "Globe-1" Source
Data on tests on ranges are already declassified. They concern not only tests in Semipalatinsk area of Kazakhstan, but also on the archipelago Novaya Zemlya. Respectively, are given publicity and data in the USA. But the signature stamp "confidentially" there still remains on some documents. In particular, data on the nuclear explosions made in the "noble" purposes are not in full open. In the territory of the former USSR such explosions too were. Where exactly and how many they made?
For a reference point we will take the declassified documents to which there is a free access of journalists. It is officially recognized that with 1965 and till 1988 in the USSR 124 "economic" blastings were carried out. Thus, at least, three of them proceeded in an emergency situation. Explosions are referred to the emergency "Globe-1" (The Ivanovo area), "Craton-3" and "Crystal" (both in Yakutia). According to academician Alexey Yablokov, in the USSR carried out 186 "noble" peace explosions from 196 planned. Simply not still, he considers, is declassified.
In particular, almost filtered nothing into mass media about an emergency at explosion "Taiga". And situation there and now not the simple. In total Tsniiatominrform in 1994 (when there was a rassekrechivaniye) reported that pollution by dangerous radioactive substances (on a surface and in the atmosphere) occurred to their emission in 24 cases.
In what regions of Russia peace nuclear charges were undermined? (Whom data as a whole across the USSR interest – look on the Internet). Here list in alphabetical order.
In the territory of the Arkhangelsk region – 4 explosions, Astrakhan – 15, Bashkiria – 7, Ivanovo – 1, Irkutsk – 2, Kalmykia – 1, the Kemerovo region – 1, Komi – 3, Krasnoyarsk Krai – 9, Murmansk region – 2, Orenburg – 4, Perm – 8, Stavropol Krai – 1, the Tyumen region – 8, Chita – 1, Yakutia – 12.
For what purposes all this became? Tasks were solved the following: geological investigation of new fields by means of seismography; activization of impoverished oil and gas-bearing layers; formation of long-term underground storages for oil and gas; suppression of underground fires; creation of underground capacities for dumping in them a chemical waste; a soil sketch for dams; a methane otsekaniye in coal mines.
From this list it is visible that the part of tasks could be solved and without nuclear explosions. However, it would demand considerable quantity of time. Spent time for the decision "was compressed" by nuclear explosions about one minutes. "Babakhnuli" also is not present a problem, everything is solved. But there were other problems. About them still it is a little told and written. Let’s address to elementary conclusions of experts in nuclear power (too everything available on the Internet).
Main conclusion. During nuclear underground explosion on the range there is almost complete allocation of energy, all components of a warhead are destroyed almost completely. Differently, the effektnost of explosion comes nearer to 99 %. But, certainly, there is very high radiation. If it escapes from a well with gases, there will be a radioactive infection of the district (so happened on Semipalatinsk the range). It is clear, that safety requirements on the range tried to observe as it is possible more strictly.
One more conclusion. Peace nuclear explosions were often carried out in densely populated territories. Thus it was not absolutely clear, as as will occur in a subsoil after explosion on depth in one-two kilometer. On Semipalatinsk the range a subsoil is rather stable and there the sparsely populated district. It turns out, underground nuclear gin in other territory of the USSR appeared more dangerously Semipalatinsk. However, the capacity of the charges used in the peace purposes, was 10 times less. Nevertheless there are reasons for alarm.
At peace nuclear explosions there was an incomplete allocation of energy (especially in emergency cases). Residual radioactive materials in cavities of a subsoil can be taken out by water, rise to a surface at a motion of layers. And such motions occur constantly. Besides, radioactive there was an oil on those fields production on which intensified underground nuclear explosion. The part of oil industry workers received a life-threatening dose of radiation. It is necessary to consider and that water can take out for a long time radioactive elements to drinking and other sources. Accurately to track this process and somehow to prevent it extremely difficult.
No economic benefits reached at peace nuclear explosions justify Ministry of Atomic Energy of the USSR. A question only in the one who and when will forbid on our planet atom use in the projects which have not passed ecological examination. However, at the time of when peace explosions were conducted, nobody thought of consequences. That "demolition men" will go to Moscow, and the people it is necessary to live on a flank with gunpowder. And when it ecologically «рванет» – it is not known.