■ Coercive paraphilias are invasive, in that they involve unwill­ing recipients of behavior such as voyeurism or exhibition­ism. Coercive acts may harm their targets, who may be psychologically traumatized by the experience.

■ Exhibitionism, obscene phone calls, voyeurism, frotteur – ism, zoophilia, and necrophilia are all varieties of coercive paraphilias.

■ Exhibitionism is behavior in which an individual, almost always a male, exposes his genitals to an involuntary observer.

■ People who exhibit themselves are usually young adult males who have strong feelings of inadequacy and insecurity. Sexual relationships, either past or present, are likely to be unsatisfactory.

■ Gratification is usually obtained when the reaction to exhibitionism is shock, disgust, or fear. Physical assault is generally not associated with exhibitionism.

■ The characteristics of individuals who make obscene phone calls are similar to those of exhibitionists.

■ Although there may be an element of hostility in obscene phone calls, the caller rarely follows up his verbal assault with a physical attack on his victim.

■ Voyeurism is obtaining sexual pleasure from looking at the exposed bodies or sexual activities of others, usually strangers.

■ People inclined toward voyeurism, typically males, are often sociosexually underdeveloped, with strong feelings of inferi­ority and inadequacy.

■ Video voyeurism is a form of voyeurism in which video cam­eras are used to surreptitiously invade the personal privacy of unaware victims.

■ Frotteurism involves a person obtaining sexual pleasure by pressing or rubbing against another person in a crowded public place.

■ Zoophilia involves sexual contact between humans and animals; it occurs most commonly as a transitory experience of young people to whom a sexual partner is inaccessible or forbidden.

■ Necrophilia involves obtaining sexual gratification by view­ing or having intercourse with a corpse.