■ Plan B, oral contraceptives, and the ParaGard IUD can be used for emergency contraception when a woman has had unprotected intercourse.
■ The FDA denied over-the-counter status to emergency contraception, against its committee’s recommendation.
Fertility Awareness Methods
■ Contraceptive methods based on the menstrual cycle— including the standard days, mucus, calendar, and basal body temperature methods—help in planning coital activity to avoid a woman’s fertile period.
■ At this time sterilization should be considered permanent.
A decision to be sterilized should be carefully evaluated.
■ Tubal ligation is the sterilization procedure most commonly performed for women. It does not alter a woman’s hormone levels or menstrual cycle or the timing of menopause.
■ Vasectomy, the sterilization procedure for men, is not effective for birth control immediately after surgery because sperm remain in the vas deferens above the incision.
■ Breast-feeding, douching, and the withdrawal method are not reliable methods of contraception.
New Directions in Contraception
■ Possible contraceptive methods for men in the future include the use of hormones and nonhormonal methods to reduce the production and motility of sperm or to create a "dry orgasm."
■ Possible future contraceptive methods for women include nonhormonal contraception, variations of the IUD, and new methods for delivering hormones.
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Also access links to chapter-related websites, including Margaret Sanger Papers Project, Successful Contraception, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Birth Control: How Hormones Work to Prevent Pregnancy, The National Woman’s Health Information Center, New Male Contraceptives, When Timing Is Everything, and Condomania.