■ Plan B, oral contraceptives, and the ParaGard IUD can be used for emergency contraception when a woman has had unprotected intercourse.

■ The FDA denied over-the-counter status to emergency contraception, against its committee’s recommendation.

Fertility Awareness Methods

■ Contraceptive methods based on the menstrual cycle— including the standard days, mucus, calendar, and basal body temperature methods—help in planning coital activity to avoid a woman’s fertile period.


■ At this time sterilization should be considered permanent.

A decision to be sterilized should be carefully evaluated.

■ Tubal ligation is the sterilization procedure most commonly performed for women. It does not alter a woman’s hormone levels or menstrual cycle or the timing of menopause.

■ Vasectomy, the sterilization procedure for men, is not effec­tive for birth control immediately after surgery because sperm remain in the vas deferens above the incision.

Unreliable Methods

■ Breast-feeding, douching, and the withdrawal method are not reliable methods of contraception.

New Directions in Contraception

■ Possible contraceptive methods for men in the future include the use of hormones and nonhormonal methods to reduce the production and motility of sperm or to create a "dry orgasm."

■ Possible future contraceptive methods for women include nonhormonal contraception, variations of the IUD, and new methods for delivering hormones.

Media Resources

Log in to CengageBrain. com to access the resources your instructor requires.

Go to CengageBrain. com to access Psychology CourseMate, where you will find an interactive eBook, glossaries, flashcards, quizzes, videos, and more.

Also access links to chapter-related websites, including Margaret Sanger Papers Project, Successful Contraception, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Birth Control: How Hormones Work to Prevent Pregnancy, The National Woman’s Health Information Center, New Male Contracep­tives, When Timing Is Everything, and Condomania.