Male sterilization is as effective as female ster­ilization and has the advantages of being safer

I Figure 10.11 Essure, a tiny coil that

and less expensive and having fewer complica-

is used in female sterilization.

tions following surgery. However, of people who

judge exactly when he must withdraw, and his tendency is to remain inside the vagina as long as possible, which may be too long. Any sperm deposited on the labia while the man withdraws his penis can swim into the vagina. Both partners may experience pleasure-reducing anxiety about whether he will withdraw in time (Whittaker et al., 2010). One study found that almost 12% of sexually active 15-year-olds from 24 coun­tries used withdrawal as their primary means of contraception (Godeau et al., 2008).


Although some women use douching after intercourse as a method of birth control, it is ineffective. After ejaculation some sperm reach the inside of the uterus in a matter of 1 or 2 minutes. In addition, the movement of the water from douching may actually help sperm reach the opening of the cervix. Furthermore, frequent douching is not recom­mended because it can irritate vaginal tissues.