At least 200 prescription and nonprescription medications have negative effects on sexual desire and/or functioning (Finger et al., 2000). Research indicates that even use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may contribute to erectile dysfunction (Gleason et al., 2011). As much as 25% of cases of ED are related to medication side effects (Miller, 2000). Health-care practitioners do not always discuss potential sexual side effects of medications, so you may need to ask about the possible effects of any prescribed medicines on sexuality. Often another medication can be substituted that will have fewer or milder negative effects on sexual interest, arousal, and orgasm.

Psychiatric Medications Antidepressants called SSRIs cause reduced sexual interest and arousal and delayed or absent orgasm in up to 60% of users (Apantaku-Olajide et al., 2011; Corona et al., 2009; Simon, 2010). The use of the antidepressant Wellbutrin (bupropion), Viagra, or ginkgo biloba (240-900 mg a day) can sometimes reverse the sexual side effects from SSRI antidepressants (Balon & Segraves, 2008; Heiman,

2008) . Antipsychotic medications frequently cause lack of desire and erection and delay or absence of ejaculation and orgasm, and tranquilizers such as Valium and Xanax can interfere with orgasmic response.

Antihypertensive Medications Medications prescribed for high blood pressure can cause problems with desire, arousal, and orgasm. Some hypertension medications are more likely than others to have negative sexual effects.

Miscellaneous Medications Prescription gastrointestinal and antihistamine medica­tions can interfere with desire and arousal function. Methadone (a synthetic opioid) can cause decreased desire, arousal disorder, lack of orgasm, and delayed ejaculation. Some over-the-counter antihistamines, motion sickness remedies, and gastrointesti­nal medications have been associated with desire and erection problems. Research also indicates that women who use hormonal forms of contraception report less arousal, less frequent sex, and fewer orgasms than women using nonhormonal methods of birth con­trol. However, both groups report similar levels of sexual satisfaction (M. Smith, 2011).