We conclude our discussion of coercive paraphilias with a few brief comments about three additional varieties of these coercive or invasive forms of paraphilia. The first two, frotteurism and zoophilia, are fairly common. The third variant form, necrophilia, is a rare and extremely aberrant form of sexual expression.


Frotteurism (frah-toor-IH-zum) is a fairly common coercive paraphilia that goes largely unnoticed. It involves an individual, usually a male, who obtains sexual pleasure by press­ing or rubbing against a fully clothed female in a crowded public place, such as an eleva­tor, a bus, a subway, a large sporting event, or an outdoor concert. The most common form of contact is between the man’s clothed penis and a woman’s buttocks or legs. Less commonly, he may use his hands to touch a woman’s thighs, pubic region, breasts, or buttocks. This form of contact, called "toucherism," may seem to be inadvertent, and the woman who is touched may not notice or may pay little heed to the seemingly casual contact. On the other hand, she may feel victimized and angry (Freund et al., 1997).

A man who engages in frotteurism may achieve arousal and orgasm during the act. More commonly, he incorporates the mental images of his actions into masturbation fanta­sies at a later time. Men who engage in this activity have many of the characteristics mani­fested by those who practice exhibitionism. They are frequently plagued by feelings of social and sexual inadequacy. Their brief, furtive contacts with strangers in crowded places allow them to include others in their sexual expression in a safe, nonthreatening manner.

As with other paraphilias, it is difficult to estimate just how common this variety of coercive paraphilia is. One study of reportedly typical or normal college men found that 21% of the respondents had engaged in one or more frotteuristic acts (Templeman & Sinnett, 1991).