Efundula, ohango or olufuko became fiercely contested when women’s mobility and sexuality evolved into major issues in the altercations between the male triad of missions, colonial administration and Owambo authority. A battle over patriar­chal control of women marked the early decades of colonialism in Ovamboland[25]. In northern Namibia, as elsewhere in the colonial world, struggles over the redis­tribution of power between heterogeneous groups of colonisers and colonised men tended to take the shape of conflicts surrounding the control of women’s la­bour, mobility, and sexuality (cf. Becker 1995:38—40). These contestations com­monly found the colonial administration and male Owambo traditionalists and authorities in the same camp, while they were often at loggerheads with the Chris­tian missions as the third player in the field of colonial sexual and gender politics.