Paradox of female sexuality and social change
Collectivism and interdependency are strongly favoured in Malian culture, which despises individual uniqueness and commitment to personal interests. An assertion such as “I have never seen someone like you, you are one of a kind!” is understood in the Malian context as a very insulting statement, which insinuates ignorance and selfishness in the person in question. The common belief is that the prevailing elaborate sexual socialization of men and women has the altruistic goal of promoting collective well-being through strengthening social identity and cohesion. Therefore, excision is viewed as only the first link of a chain of community interventions in individual existence. This perception is opposed to the claim that this practice ensures that female sexuality exists only through men, and is part of the agenda of serving the patriarchal interests of female oppression (McFadden 1994).