In this chapter I discuss the complexities of HIV/AIDS in China. I provide an overview of China’s uneven socioeconomic landscape which facilitated the spread of HIV; the biological transmission paths of the virus; major milestones and key dates and policies; and the latest trends in infections. I also raise some of the frequently overlooked factors that have impacted on China’s experiences of HIV, such as the changing representations of and attitudes to HIV widely maintained by the dominant urban Han Chinese community (and the industrial aspects of responses to HIV by local and global health bodies and industrial corporate social responsibility [CSR] platforms). These practices mean that HIV/AIDS programs are a major recipient of donor dollars and a focus of social and political attention in China. The aim of this chapter is to provide an understanding of the political, economic, social, cultural and global health issues that have shaped how the virus is spread, managed, engaged by sick and advocacy groups, and perceived by the general public in China.