Although the government response to HIV was slow, on the ground there was a flurry of activity. In cities large and small, organisations were formed to address the spread of HIV in the country and to deal with the inadequate and frequently discriminatory treatment of the HIV­positive. Although local government acceptance of civil society organisations varied significantly from area to area, many were harassed and had their activities suppressed or were shut down completely (Every Human Has Rights n. d.; Wu and Fa 2004: B11). Some, however, were able to make many positive changes (Yun et al. 2005: 1149—63; Asia Catalyst and Korekata AIDS Law Center 2012) and work in collaboration with state officials. Their experiences have meant that non-HIV-based organisations have also learned how to avoid the pitfalls and unpleasant encounters with public security bodies that plagued many CSOs in China’s AIDS industry.