1. Quoted in Epstein 1990. Epstein and Janet Golden found the Suydam story and made it available to other scholars.

2. A fact-checker for The Sciences called Suydam’s town in Connecticut to verify the story. The town official asked to keep the family name quiet, appar­ently because relatives still live in the area and the story still bothers some local residents.

3. Halley 1991.

4. Kolata 1998a.

3. I owe this phrase to Epstein 1990.

6. Young 1937 has a full and highly readable review of hermaphrodites from antiquity to the present.

7 . Ibid.

8. This discussion comes from Epstein 1990; Epstein 1991; Jones and Stallybrass 1991; Cadden 1993; and Park 1990.

9. My account of sex determination and the meanings of gender in the Middle Ages comes from Cadden 1993.

10. In one variation of this idea the uterus had five chambers, with the middle one, again, producing the hermaphrodite.

11. Cadden i993,p.2i3.

12. Ibid., p. 214.

13. Jones and Stallybrass 1991.

14. Ibid.; Daston and Park 1983.

13. Matthews 1939, pp. 247—48. I am indebted to a colleague, Professor Pepe Amor y Vasquez, for bringing this incident to my attention.

16. Quoted in Jones and Stallybrass i99i, p. 103.

17. Quoted in Ibid., p. 90.

18. Several historians note that concerns about homosexuality enhanced the felt need for social regulation of hermaphrodites. In fact, homosexuality itself was sometimes represented as a form of hermaphroditism. Thus inter­sexuality, although relatively rare, fell (and falls) into a broader category of sexual variation of concern to physicians as well as religious and legal authori­ties. See discussions in Epstein 1990; Park 1990; Epstein 1991; and Dreger 1998a, b.

19. Coleman 1971 andNyhart 1993.

20. Foucault 1970; Porter 1986; andPoovey 1993. For more on the social origins of statistics, see chapter 3 of this book.

21. Daston 1992.

22. Quoted in Dreger 1988b, p. 33.

23. On earlier treatments of ‘‘monstrous births,’’ see Daston and Parks 1998; for a modern scientist’s evaluation of St.-Hilaire, see Morrin 1996.

24. These comments are inspired by Thomson 1996 and Dreger 1998b. For a discussion of how modern reproductive and genetic technology has pushed us even further in the direction of eliminating wondrous bodies, see Hubbard i990.

23. For a discussion of the social function of classification and of how so­cial ideology produces particular systems of classification, see Schiebinger 1993b; and Dreger 1998b.

26. Dreger 1998b.

27. Quoted in Ibid., p. 143.

28. Dreger 1998b, p. 146.

29. The microscope was not new, although it underwent continued im­provement in the nineteenth century. Just as important was the development of techniques to slice tissues into very thin strips and to stain the tissue to make them distinct under microscopic examination (Nyhart 1993).

30. Dreger 1998b, p. 130.

31. For current estimates using this ‘‘modern’’ system, see Blackless et al. 2000.

32. For well-documented examples of the uses of the science of physical difference, see Russett 1989.

33. Sterling 1991.

34. Newman 1983.

33. Clarke 1873; Howe 1874; for the century-long struggle of women to enter science themselves, see Rossiter 1982 and 1993.

36. Historian Dreger based her book on over 300 cases in the medical literature in Britain and France.

37. Quoted in Dreger 1998b, pp. 161, 1.

38. Newsom 1994.

39. The man suffered from hypospadias, a failure of the urethra to run to the tip of the penis. Men with hypospadias have difficulties with urination.

40. Quoted in Hausman i993,p. 80.

41. Practicing hermaphrodites differ from bisexuals. Bisexuals are com­pletely male or completely female but not completely heterosexual. A practic­ing hermaphrodite, as Young used the term, meant a person who used his male parts to take the male role in sex with a woman and her female parts to take the female role in sex with a man.

42. i937, pp-140, 142.

43. Ibid.,p. i39.

44. Dicks and Childers 1934, pp.308, 310.

43. The latest medical writings speculate about the future use of gene therapy in utero; in theory, such treatments could prevent many of the more common forms of intersexuality. See Donahoe et al. 1991.

46. Evidence for this lack of self-reflection on the part of the medical community may be found in Kessler 1990.