Withdrawal is another acceptable method of birth control for those who cannot use an­other method for religious reasons. In addition, it may be a good method for couples who do not mind becoming pregnant, it is free, doesn’t require any devices, and it is better than not using any method at all.


Withdrawal provides no protection from STIs and has low effectiveness rates. In addition, withdrawal may contribute to premature ejaculation in some men and may be extremely stressful for both men and their partners. It can be a difficult method for a man to use be­cause it requires him to withdraw the penis just before orgasm. Many men experience a mild to extreme “clouding of consciousness” just before orgasm when physical movements be­come involuntary (Kowal, 2004b). This method also requires trust from the female partner.

Cross-Cultural Use

Withdrawal is a popular contraceptive method throughout the world. It is one of the most frequently used methods in Austria, the Czech Republic, Greece, Ireland, and Italy (Francoeur & Noonan, 2004). In the Czech Republic, over 40% of women report using withdrawal as their contraceptive method (Zverina, 2004). Overall, it is a popular con­traceptive method for couples with limited contraceptive choices or for those who are reluctant to use modern methods of contraception. In other countries, such as Germany, withdrawal remains very unpopular.