Behaviorist TheoriesПодпись: A study on genetically altered fruit flies found that changing one gene in the fruit fly could create a distinctive male or female pattern of sexual arousal and behavior (Demir & Dickson, 2005; Stockinger et al., 2005). Male fruit flies that were given the female version of the gene expressed sexual interest in other males, whereas female fruit flies given the male version expressed sexual interest in other females. Although this study gives support for a genetic component to sexual orientation, it is unclear whether the results could be applicable to humans.Behavioral theories of homosexuality consider it a learned behavior, brought about by the rewarding or pleasant reinforcement of homosexual behaviors or the punishing or nega­tive reinforcement of heterosexual behavior (Masters & Johnson, 1979). For example, a

person may have a same-sex encounter that is pleasurable, coupled with an encounter with the other sex that is frightening; in his or her fantasies, that person may focus on the same-sex encounter, reinforcing its pleasure with masturbation. Masters and Johnson (1979) believed that even in adulthood some men and women move toward same-sex behaviors if they have bad heterosexual encounters and pleasant homosexual ones.

Подпись: ReviewQuestion Identify and describe the four developmental theories of homosexuality development. It is interesting to point out, however, that in a society like ours that tends to view heterosexuality as the norm, it would seem that very few men and women would be so­cietally reinforced for homosexual behavior, yet homosexuality exists even without this positive reinforcement from society.