In 2003, President Bush signed off on the Prison Rape Elimination Act, a federal law that reduces tolerance for prison sexual assault, mandates the collection of national data on the incidence of prison rape, and provides funding for research and program devel­opment. This law has helped reduce prison rape and support those who have been raped in prison. Studies have found that approximately 18% of prison inmates report sexual threats from other prisoners, whereas 8.5% report sexual assaults in prison (Hensley et al., 2005).

Although prison rape occurs most frequently in the male population, it also occurs between female inmates using a variety of different objects to penetrate the vagina or anus. Women who are in U. S. prisons are often victims of sexual harassment, molesta­tion, coercive sexual behaviors, and forced sexual intercourse, with the majority of this abuse being perpetuated by prison staff (Struckman-Johnson & S truckman-Johnson,

2002) . Female inmates also experience sexual pressure in their interactions with other female inmates (Alarid, 2000). Some researchers have pointed out that incarcerated women are viewed as “bad girls” and because of this they are viewed as sexually easy (Struckman-Johnson & Struckman-Johnson, 2002). The majority of women who are raped in prison never report the crime for fear of retaliation.

Men in prison learn avoidance techniques that women use in society—physical mod­esty, no eye contact, no accepting of gifts, and tempering of friendliness (Bart & O’Brien, 1985). Prison rape has been found to be an act of asserting one’s own masculinity in an en­vironment that rewards dominance and power (Peeples & Scacco, 1982). Sex, violence, and conquest are the only avenues open to men in the restrictive confines of prison. To rape another man is seen as the “ultimate humiliation” because it forces the victim to as­sume the role of a woman. The victim becomes the “property” of his assailant, who will, in turn, provide protection in return for anal or oral sex. However, the rapist often will “sell” sexual favors from his man to other inmates in exchange for cigarettes or money.

Like rape in other populations, prison rape has been found to have a significant role in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (Kupers, 2001). Inmates who have been raped also experience rape trauma syndrome. As mentioned previously, the acute phase is characterized by feelings of fear, anxiety, anger, and guilt, as well as numerous physical problems. Because these men and women must continue to interact with their

assailants, long-term reorganization may take longer to work through. In addition, of­tentimes there are no rape crisis services for those who have been raped in prison and little sympathy from prison employees.

Подпись: ReviewQuestion Differentiate between the various types of rape against men, and describe the effects of these types of rape. Подпись:REPORTING, AVOIDING,

AND TREATING RAPISTS

As we learned earlier in the chapter, the majority of rape victims do not report the rape to the police. We will now explore reporting statistics and reasons for nonreporting; and the process of telling the police, pressing charges, and going to court. We also will look at rape avoidance strategies and rapist treatment.