Another way of looking at the causes of paraphilias is to examine the ways society en­courages certain behaviors. Feminists, for example, argue that in societies that treat women as sexual objects anyway, it is a natural development to replace the woman with another, inanimate sexual object. When men and their sexual organs are glorified, some men may need to reinforce their masculinity by exposing themselves and evoking fear.

Подпись: ReviewQuestion Differentiate between how the biological, psychoanalytic, developmental, behavioral, and sociological theories explain paraphilias. American society is ruled by images, saturated with television, movies, commercials, advertisements, and magazines; and most of these images have highly charged sexual im­agery (Collins, 2005). The result, some argue, is a world where the image takes the place of the reality, where it becomes common to substitute fantasies for reality. Surrounded by media, the society experiences things vicariously, through reading about it or seeing it rather than actually doing it. In such a climate, representations of eroticism may be easily substituted for sex itself, and so paraphilias become common.