Lise of Alcohol or Drugs
A situational variable that may influence rape acknowledgment is the use of alcohol or drugs. Richardson and Campbell (1982) found that when the victim was intoxicated, college student observers viewed her as more responsible for the rape than when she had not been drinking. Similarly, Abbey (1991) found that observers rated a woman more sexually available and responsive to sexual overtures when she had been drinking alcohol than when she had been drinking soda. These findings suggest that if the victim had been drinking at the time of the rape, she may be more inclined to see herself as responsible for what happened and be less likely to acknowledge the incident as rape. Results from the Andreoli Mathie and Kahn (1995) study lend some support to this logic. Significantly more unacknowledged victims reported they were impaired by alcohol or drugs during the incident (54-2%) than acknowledged victims (28%).