Although we had no prior hypotheses regarding sexual experiences and rape acknowledgment, in each of our studies (Andreoli Mathie et al., 1994; Andreoli Mathie & Kahn, 1995; Kahn et al., 1994) we examined whether acknowledged and unacknowledged victims differed in their re­sponses to each item of the SES, such as those who indicated consensual

TABLE 4

Mean Reactions of Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Victims Following Their Assault

Item

Acknowledged

Unacknowledged

Significance

Felt guilt

5.65

4.96

NS

Felt devastated

5.92

3.43

.001

Kept thinking about incident

6.04

4.94

.018

Was depressed

5.96

3.92

.001

Felt angry

6.31

4.79

.001

Had lowered self-esteem

5.73

4.32

.008

Afraid of what others thought of me

5.46

3.64

.001

More fearful of men

4.69

4.04

NS

Saw world as scarier place

3.92

2.98

NS

Difficulty relating with others

4.58

2.32

.001

Had nightmares

4.65

1.98

.001

Lost time from school or work

2.81

1.40

.001

Had suicidal thoughts

2.35

1.26

.003

Note. Multivariate F(13,59) = 4.79, p < .001. The higher the mean, the greater the reaction the woman experienced on a scale from 1 to 7.

sex, force during petting, and attempted rape. As can be seen in Table 5, acknowledged victims reported greater frequencies of sexual experiences involving force than unacknowledged victims in their nonrape experiences, including forced kissing and petting, and the threat or actual use of force when intercourse did not occur. Thus, compared with acknowledged vic­tims, unacknowledged victims appear to have had a less violent nonrape sexual history.