Of the twelve standard occupational groups used by the U. S. Census, six contain the majority of jobs that call for emo­tional labor, as defined in Chapter Seven. These six groups, summarized in Table 1, are as follows: professional and technical workers, managers and administrators, sales work­ers, clerical workers, and service workers of two types — those who work inside and those who work outside of pri­vate households. In one way or another, probably most sales workers, managers, and administrators are called upon to do some emotion work. But among those in the professions, service work, and clerical work, only selected jobs seem to involve substantial amounts of emotional labor (see Tables 2, 3, and 4). Within these categories are some of the most rap­idly growing occupations. According to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, there will be a 30 percent growth in the 1980s for social workers, 25 percent for preschool teachers, 45 percent for health administrators, 33 percent for sales managers, 79 percent for flight attendants, and 35 percent for food-counter workers. The largest number of new jobs are expected in the retailing sector, especially in department stores and restaurants (New York Times, October 14, 1979, p. 8). Given the roughness of occupational categories, the fit of emotion work criteria to occupation and to labor produced is necessarily loose. The tables presented here are no more than a sketch, a suggestion of a pattern that deserves to be examined more closely.

Table 1 shows the number of jobs in all six occupational categories in 1970. It also shows the number of men and women in these categories. Over all, women are overrepre­sented in jobs calling for emotional labor; about half of all working women hold such jobs. Men are underrepresented; about a quarter of all working men are in emotional labor jobs. This is true for professional and technical occupations, for clerical occupations, and for service-sector jobs as well.

Table 2 examines fifteen occupations that involve sub­stantial amounts of emotional labor, selected from the twenty-seven different occupations grouped as Professional, Technical, or Kindred by the U. S. Census. It computes the proportion of all professional and technical jobs that in­volved substantial amounts of emotional labor in 1970, and shows variations by sex. Tables 3 and 4, respectively, per­form the same kind of analysis for clerical workers and for service workers outside of private households.

TABLE l. Summary Estimate of Jobs Most Calling for Emotional Labor, 1970

Occupation

Female

Male

Total

Professional, technical and kindred3

3,438,144

2,666,188

6,104,332

Managers and administratorsb

1,013,843

5,125,534

6,139,377

Sales workersb

1,999,794

3,267,653

5,267,447

Clerical and kindredc

4,988,448

863,204

5,851,652

Service workers excluding private householdd

3,598,190

1,367,280

4,965,470

Private household workersb

1,053,092

39,685

1,092,777

Total number of jobs calling for emotional labor

16,091,511

13,329,544

29,421,055

Total size of employed labor force over 14 years of age

29,170,127

48,138,665

77,308,792

Jobs involving

55.2%

27.7%

38.1%

substantial emotional labor as a percentage of all jobs

aSelected occupations; see Table 2. bAII jobs.

cSeIected occupations; see Table 3. ^Selected occupations; see Table 4.

NOTE: Tables 1 to 4 enumerate the number of employed persons, 14 years or older, by occupation, from the 1970 U. S. Census.

source: U. S. Bureau of the Census, i, “Census of the Population: 1970,” Vol. 1, Characteristics of the Population, Part l, United States Summary Section I, Table 221. Detailed Occupation of the Experienced Civilian Labor Force and Employed Persons by Sex (Washington D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1973), pp. 718-724. ‘

TABLE 2. Detailed Occupational Analysis of Selected Professional, Technical, and Kindred Workers, 1970

Occupation

Female

Male

Total

Lawyers and judges

13,196

259,264

272,460

Librarians

100,160

22,047

122,207

Personnel and

89,379

201,498

290,877

labor relations

Registered nurses

807,825

22,444

830,269

Therapists

47,603

27,631

75,234

Dental hygenists

14,863

942

15,805

Therapy assistants

2,122

1,093

3,215

Clergymen and

26,125

227,870

253,995

religious workers Social and

156,500

110,447

266,947

recreation workers

College and

138,136

348,265

486,401

university teachers Teachers, except college

1,929,064

817,002

2,746,066

and universities Vocational and

46,592

60,191

106,783

educational

counselors

Public relations and

19,391

54,394

73,785

publicity writers Radio and television

1,466

19,885

21,351

announcers

Physicians, dentists, and

45,722

493,215

538,937

related personnel

Total number of

3,438,144

2,666,188

6,104,332

persons employed in selected professional, technical, and kindred occupations (18 jobs)

TABLE 2. Continued

Occupation

Female

Male

Total

Total number of

persons employed in all professional, technical, and kindred occupations (34 jobs)

4,314,083

6,516,610

10,830,693

Percentage of all professional, technical and kindred jobs involving substantial amounts of emotional labor

79.7

40.9

56.4

TABLE 3. Detailed Occupational Analysis of Selected Clerical and Kindred Workers, 1970

Occupation

Female

Male

Total

Bank tellers

215,037

34,439

249,476

Cashiers

695,142

136,954

832,096

Clerical supervisors

48,389

64,391

112,780

Bill collectors

18,537

32,947

51,484

Counter clerks,

152,667

76,584

229,251

excluding food

Enumerators and

50,121

14,504

64,625

interviewers

Insurance adjustors

25,587

70,407

95,994

and examiners

Library attendants

99,190

26,783

125,973

Postal clerks

91,801

210,418

302,219

Receptionists

288,326

16,046

304,372

Secretaries

2,640,740

64,608

2,705,348

Stenographers

120,026

8,097

128,123

Teachers aides

118,347

13,156

131,503

Telegraph operators

3,553

8,725

12,278

Telephone operators

385,331

22,696

408,027

Ticket agents

35,654

62,449

98,103

Total number of

4,988,448

863,204

5,851,652

persons employed in selected clerical and kindred occupations

Total number of

9,582,440

3,452,251

13,034,691

persons employed in all clerical and kindred occupations

Percentage of all clerical

52.1

25.0

44.9

and kindred jobs involving substantial amounts of emotional labor

TABLE 4. Detailed Occupational Analysis of

Selected Service Workers, Except Private Household, 1970

Occupation

Female

Male

Total

Bartenders

39,432

149,506

188,938

Food counter and

118,981

39,405

158,386

fountain workers

Waiters

927,251

116,838

1,044,089

Health service workers3

1,044,944

139,760

1,184,704

Personal service

776,222

393,273

1,169,495

workers15

Child care workers

126,667

9,684

136,531

Elevator operators

9,606

25,703

35,309

Hairdressers and

425,605

46,825

472,430

cosmetologists

Housekeepers

74,461

29,107

103,568

(excluding private household)

School monitors

23,538

2,576

26,114

Ushers, recreation and

4,328

10,724

15,052

amusement

Welfare service aides

11,764

3,634

15,398

Protective service

15,391

400,245

415,636

workers c

Total number of

3,598,190

1,367,280

4,965,470

persons employed in selected service

worker occupations, except private household

Occupation

Female

Male

Total

Total number of persons employed in all service worker occupations except private household

4,424,030

3,640,487

8,064,517

Percentage of all service sector occupations, except private household, involving substantial amounts of emotional labor

81.3

37.6

61.6

^Includes dental assistants; health aides, except nursing; health trainees; lay mid­wives; nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants; practical nurses.

^Includes airline stewardesses, recreation and amusement attendants, personal service attendants not elsewhere classified, baggage porters and bellhops, barbers, boarding and lodging housekeepers, bootblacks.

includes marshals and constables, policemen and detectives, sheriffs and bailiffs.

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